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About Georgia – General data

Official name: Georgia
Local Name: Sak’art’velo
Location & Size: Georgia is set at the cross-roads of Europe and Asia. regarding the dimensions of Schweiz it occupies sixty nine.700 sq. kilometer between the Black and Caspian Seas. It borders Turkey: 252 kilometer, Russia: 723 kilometer, Armenia: 164 kilometer and Azerbaijan: 322 kilometer.
Capital: capital, 1.3 million
Government: Presidential commonwealth
Georgia has additionally twelve regions



(the names of cities square measure in parenthesis)
· state (Sokhumi)
· Adjaria (Batumi)
· Guria (Ozurgeti)
· Imereti (Kutaisi)
· Kakheti (Telavi)
· Kvemo Kartli (Rustavi)
· Mtskheta-Mtianeti (Mtskheta)
· Racha-Lechkhumi-Kvemo Svaneti ( Ambrolauri)
· Samegrelo-Zemo sSvaneti ( Zugdidi)
· Samtskhe-Javakheti (Akhaltsikhe)
· Shida Kartli (Gori)
· capital (Tbilisi)
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: Georgian (71%), that is over two,000 years recent and with its own alphabet.
Other languages: Russian 9%; Armenian 7%; Azeri 6 June 1944
POPULATION: four.9 million
NATIONALITY: Georgian(s)
ETHNIC GROUPS: Georgian seventy seven.1%; Armenian six.1%; Russian four.3%; Azeri five.7%; Abkhaz one.8%; alternative five-hitter
RELIGION: Main faith is Georgian Orthodox : seventy six %; Russian Orthodox 8%; Muslim 7%; Armenian Apostolic 6%; Catholic 1 Chronicles, Hebrew 1%, Others 1%.
ELECTRICITY: 200v AC. 50Hz. normal European switchers.
TIME ZONE: Summer time + three time
Winter time: + four time



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About Georgia – geographics

Situated at the cross-roads of Europe and Asia, within the central and western a part of Transcaucasia, Georgia is one in all the foremost ancient countries within the world with space of sixty nine.700 sq. kilometer between the Black and Caspian seas. Its population is regarding four,9 million folks.

In the north, Georgia encompasses a 723 kilometer common border with Russia, specifically with the Northern Caucasus administrative district. Georgia additionally shares borders with Asian country (322 kilometer.) to the south-east, Asian country (164 kilometer.) to the south, and Turkey (252km.) to the south-west.

Georgia encompasses a made scenic selectionthe variety of the natural resources of Georgia is decided by its geographical location: mountains square measure dominant geographic feature of Georgia. The Likhi vary divides the country into japanese and western halves. traditionally, the western portion of Georgia was referred to asgeographic region whereas the japanese tableland was known as peninsulathanks to a fancy geographic setting, mountains additionally isolate the northern region of Svaneti from the remainder of Georgia.

The larger Caucasus mountain chain separates Georgia from the North Caucasian Republics of the country.

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The southern portion of the country is finite by the Lesser mountain rangethe most Caucasus vary is far higher in elevation than the Lesser mountain range, with the best peaks rising quite five,000 meters (16,400ft.) on top ofwater levelthe best mountain in Georgia is Mount Shkhara at five,201 meters (17,059 feet), and therefore thesecond highest is Mount Janga (Jangi-Tau) at five,051 meters on top of water levelalternative outstanding peaks embrace Kazbegi (Kazbek) at five,047 meters (16,554 feet), Tetnuldi (4,974m.) Mt. Ushba (4,710m.0, ) and Ailama (4,525m. ). Out of the abovementioned peaks, solely Kazbegi is of volcanic origin. The region between Kazbegi and Skhara (a distance of regarding 200km.along the most Caucasus Range) is dominated by varied glaciers. The Lesser mountain range square measure created from varied, interconnected mountain ranges (largely of volcanic origin) that don’t exceed, 3,400 meters. outstanding options of the world embrace the Javakheti Volcanic tablelandvaried lakes, together with Tabatskuri and Paravani, similarly as drinking water and hot springs.

The population of Georgia chiefly inhabit the plains and valleys settled between the mountainous regions. The Lesser Caucasus varythat runs parallel to the Turkish and Armenian borders, and therefore the Surami and Imereti ranges, that connect the larger Caucasus and therefore the Lesser Caucasus, produce natural barriers that square measure partially chargeable for cultural and linguistic variations among regions. Its western coast is outlined by the sea coast. sea creates favorable conditions for recreational touristrytraveler season at the seacoast lasts for five months


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The largest river is the Mtkvari. The Rioni River, the largest river in western Georgia, has its origin in the Greater Caucasus and empties into the Black Sea at the port of Poti.
About Georgia – Brief History:
Origin of the nameGeorgians call themselves Kartvelebi, their land Sakartvelo, and their language Kartuli. These names are derived from a pagan chief called Kartlos, said to be the father of all Georgians. The foreign name Georgia, used in many languages of the world, is derived from Persian گرجی Gurj via the Arabic Jurj. Because the spelling was influenced by the Greek root geōrg- (γεωργ-, indicating farming), the word has been mistakenly supposed to have come from a cognate such as St. George (the country’s patron saint), or γεωργία (geōrgía, farming).The ancient world knew the inhabitants of eastern Georgia as Iberians, from the Caucasian kingdom of Iberia — thus confusing the geographers of antiquity, who thought this name applied only to the inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula. The Armenian words for Georgian and Georgia, respectively Vir and Vrastan, come from Iberia, with loss of the initial i- and substitution of w or v for the b of Iberia.

The Persian designation for the Georgians, گرجی Gurj, is also the source of Turkish Gürcü (pronounced “Gürdjü”) and Russian Грузин (“Gruzin”). The name of the country is Gorjestan in Persian, Gürcistan in Turkish, Грузия in Russian (“Gruziya”), גרוזיה (“Gruzya”) or גאורגיה (“Georgya”) in Hebrew. The Persian name is probably also derived from Iberia, in the same way as the Armenian name mentioned above. (There are other cases in which a Persian word-initial gu- is derived from an older wi- or wa-, e.g. gul ’rose, flower’, from ward, and gurg ’wolf’, from warg.) According to others, the name may be related to the the Persian word for wolf (gurg), object of an old cult by the Caucasian peoples, hence Gorjestan – land of wolves. Yet another proposed etymology relates the Persian name to a PIE word meaning ’mountainous’.

There is also, in all likelihood, an etymological connection between the name Iberia and the historic province of Georgia called Imereti.


Georgia is a part of ancient civilization. Georgia is particular for its unique and diverse sights and historic monuments. There are more than 18 thousand historic monuments in Georgia. Georgia is a country of Early Christian culture, manuscripts, legends and traditions. Georgia became a kingdom about 4 BC.

Hardly any other country except for Georgia has experienced such a great number of assaults and still been able to preserve so many of its characteristic features and its unspoilt naturalness. Numerous churches and fortifications bear witness to the country’s restless and sorrowful historic past.

Georgia’s recorded history dates back more than 3000 years. The recently discovered Dmanisi hominid in the foothills of the lesser Caucasus, provides a remarkable 1.8 million year old link with first European humankind’s earliest transitions. After the Stone Age, humans started settling on Georgian territory even more intensivel. Since those ancient times, humans have always inhabited Georgian land.

Georgian language is one of the oldest living languages in the world, and it has its own distinctive alphabet, one of the oldest and independent one. Georgian writing was first seen in the 5th century. The first examples include inscriptions in the Georgian monastery of the Holy Cross in Palestine, in the Bethlehem desert (Bir-ell-Katt), as well as those in the Sioni Church of Bolnisi, south of Tbilisi.

Georgia has historically found itself on the margins of great empires its territory a desirable land for the great Asian empires, from the Arabs to Tamerlane, from the Mongols to the Ottomans from at least the 1st century B.C. through the 18th century. Despite numerous invasions and wars Georgia managed to unite during X-XII I centuries. David Aghmashenebeli (the Builder, 1089-1125), Georgia’s greatest and most prominent king, unified Georgia in the 12th century. This period of Georgia’s golden age ? also the rule of Queen Tamar (1184-1213) ? was a time of cultural renaissance, monastery building, fresco and ornament design. Richly decorated churches sprang up across the newly unified nation some even high up in the mountains.

The last conqueror, Russia, started annexation of Georgia in 1801 and finished it in 1917. Georgia spent almost 200 years of its recent history being part of the Russian empire: first as Russia’s province (guberniya), then as a Soviet republic. Also during this time, it retained its language, culture, and distinctive qualities.

1991, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declared independence from the U.S.S.R. 1992 Georgia became the 179th member of the UN various international and regional organizations. In November 2003 the non-violent, democratic Rose Revolution took place and launched the 3rd wave of Eastern Europe liberation. Today Georgia is a presidential democracy led by the president Mikheil Saakashvili.

About Georgia – Culture

The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country’s long history, providing it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language and alphabet (The Georgian alphabet was invented in the 5th century BC and reformed by King Parnavaz I of Iberia in 284 BC.). This has provided a strong sense of national identity that has helped to preserve Georgian distinctiveness despite repeated periods of foreign occupation and attempted assimilation.

Georgians are rightly proud of their tradition of polyphonic song. Its unique, slightly dissonant style, transports the listener instantly into the mountains capes of pre-history. Nobody knows from where they come. The Greek historian Strabo records the multi-voiced chants of Georgians riding into battle in the 1st century BC. Most interesting of all for the visitor, the three-part-harmony songs are completely integrated into modern culture, not only in the churches and monasteries, but also around the Georgian table.

Georgian dance, like its polyphonic songs, remains a major cultural export. The Georgian State Dance company tours the world for the greater part of the year. Virtually every Georgian child learns traditional dance at school and the children dance as energetically as the adults. Few of the world’s male dance traditions are as energetic, or the female as sublime and beautifully costumed. Performances are frequent and among the most powerful memories of any visit to Georgia.

About Georgia – Flora and Fauna

Georgia is particularly rich in mineral and thermal waters (more than 2000 springs). According to Dr. Mikhail Zhukov, expert World Wildlife Found(WWF): “No other European country disposes of such rich flora and fauna as Georgia. On the territory of Europe, on such a small area you will see nowhere so various relief. At the same time you will find no country in Europe preserved in such primitive state”.

Georgian flora and fauna feature high biological diversity. The rich variation in topography, climate and geology has resulted in a diverse selection of habitats that include wetlands, peat bogs, sub alpine coniferous forests, steppe grasslands, beech forests, and oak woodlands, which support over 2000 varieties of species. The animal kingdom is highly diverse; suffice it to say that in Georgia there are around 100 species of animals, more than 330 sorts of birds, 48 kinds of reptiles, 11 sorts of amphibious, and up to 160 kinds of fishes registered. Such biological diversity of flora and fauna is a good precondition to create a National Park.

In 2003, a spectacular discovery was made: remote sensing cameras captured an adult male Anatolian Leopard in the Vashlovani National Park. This beautiful but critically endangered animal had been considered long extinct in Georgia.

According to Greek legend Georgia’s first recorded tourist group arrived on a mission to seek the Golden Fleece. Furthermore they found it – a fact given credence by the ongoing Svanetian technique of panning for gold through sheepskins.Gold of ColchisAntiquity is another of Georgia’s great resources. Stone, Bronze and Iron Age settlements pepper the landscape; the finds fill the museums. The marvelous discovery of “Colchis gold” in the ancient Colchis area by the Black Sea, is now on display in Tbilisi’s National Museum.

First Europeans

Recently archeologists have discovered the skull of a 1.8 million year old hominid at Dmanisi, in the foothills of the lesser Caucasus. This historic find provides a key link to humankind’s earliest transitions between Africa and Europe.

Birthplace of wine

Georgia – the birthplace of wine. Wine-growing has a long tradition in Georgia. It’s impossible to imagine daily life, the traditions or the picturesque landscapes, without it. Legends of Georgian wine emerge from the distant annals of history. Slate cuneiform tablets from the 9th century BC describe both the Assyrian conquests and their demands for tribute. All of the vanquished had to pay exclusively in gold, save for Georgia whose wine became an acceptable currency for the Assyrian kings. Archeologists tell us that viniculture dates back 7000 years in the Caucasus. Many believe the generic word “wine” stems from the Georgian word “gvino”. With over 500 original grape varieties and a strong culture of growing, is it a surprise that Georgian wine will match any in the world.

Cave Architecture

Georgia is rich in cave architecture. The thirteen story monastery at Vardzia, found beside the Turkish border, is carved into sandstone hills. So too is the ancient town of Uplistsikhe on the historic Silk Road. Perhaps most memorable is the large complex of cave monasteries located just south of Tbilisi in the semi-desert, at David-Gareji. Founded in the 6th century, the richly frescoed caves look out on a vast sandstone landscape above a monastery that still functions.

Cristian Architecture and UNESCO world heritage

Georgia is a treasure house of dramatic and historic monuments. Three have been declared UNESCO World heritage sites: Mtskheta, the old capital; the Gelati – Bagrati monasteries near Kutaisi; and the high mountain Svanetian villages at Ushguli.

Table and Tamada

With such an abundance of delicious food and wine, over the centuries Georgia has developed a strong tradition of table culture. Not content with merely eating and drinking, the ceremony has evolved into a key stratagem of culture survival. Georgians have a saying that the guest is the gift from God. Essential to the table ceremony is the Tamada or toast-master. He guides the mood of the meal by introducing eloquent, often moving toasts at key moments, starting with “friendship”. This moment represented Niko Pirosmani- one of the Georgia’s favorite artist ( born 1862)- on one of his famous paintings. He developed his own very original “naive” style of painting. Today he is regarded as one of the world’s most outstanding “primitivist” painters.


In 1977, when the US spacecraft Voyager” was launched, it carried the traditional Georgian song “Tschakrulo” on board as a part of the world’s cultural heritage. The charm of Georgian traditional music is its polyphony – an enchanting combination of archaic and modern harmony. In 2001 UNESCO acknowledged Georgian traditional music as “a masterpiece of the world’s intangible cultural heritage”. Georgians are rightly proud of their tradition of polyphonic songs. Its unique, slightly dissonant style, transports the listener instantly into the mountains capes of pre-history. Nobody knows where they come. The Greek historian Strabo records the multi-voiced chants of Georgians riding into battle in the 1st century BC. Georgian dance, like its polyphonic songs, remains a major cultural export. The vigorous, leaping dances, clashing swords, flying sparks, daggers quivering in the floor, combine elegantly with the graceful, gliding female dances. Add to this fabulous colorful costumes from mountain villages, wild drumming, pipe and accordion, and the overall effect is unforgettable.

The Greater Caucasus

The greater Caucasus mountains extend from the Black to the Caspian Seas. Among them are Europe’s highest mountain ( Elbruz at 5642 m.) and numerous summits over 4000m. Mt Shkhara, at 50568 meter, is the highest in Georgia. Mt. Kazbek at 5033, is most popular among mountaineers. Georgia is a paradise for hiking, mountaineering and winter sports. With over half its landmass as mountains, much of it covered in  virgin forest and completely free from mass tourism, Georgia is unique


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